Saturday, November 22, 2008

Indus Valley Civilisation

River valleys have always played an important role in the progress of the Human civilization. It was on the banks of river Nile and Euphrates, there developed the civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia respectively. Similarly on the banks of river Indus there developed a civilization known as the Indus Valley Civilization. It is so far the oldest civilization of India. Though most of the sites related to it are now situated in Pakistan. It is also known as the Harappan Culture, a name given after the first site found – Harappa. The second most important site is that of Mohenjodaro (Mound of the Dead).
The basic difference between the Indus and the other civilizations is lack of written proof. While the Egyptians and the Mesopotamians left a lot of written material but we have very less documental proof regarding the Indus Culture. The little amount which we have have not been yet deciphered.
So we can say that the civilization belonged to the Pre – Historic period. The period about which we don’t have any record. It was before the age of written history or before the language developed.
It was in 1921 that Daya Ram Sahni discovered Harappa situated in the Montegomery district of Pakistan and in 1922 Dr. R.D. Banerjee discovered Mohenjodaro in the Larkana district of Pakistan.
Other places Include:
Pakistan – Bahawalpur, Balochistan (Sutkagendor)
India – Punjab (Ropar, Sanghol, Kotla Nihang Khan)
Rajasthan (Kalibangan)
Uttar Pradesh (Alamgirpur)
Gujarat- Kathiawar (Lothal, Rangpur)
Harayana (Lothal, Rakhigari, Bhagwanpur)

Friday, November 14, 2008

'Red Indians'

Often we read the term - Red Indians. There are many other terms such as Native Americans, Abhorignes,Indian Americans etc which are used in it's place.
The word Red Indian as we can see is made of two words. This is used for the people who are the original natives of America. they used to live here before the Europeon colonisation bagan.
They were called 'Red' because of their colour. It does not mean they were Red in colour, like the people who are called whites are not literally white in colour but fairer than others. Similarly thse natives were a little dark, light brown in colour. so they were called Red.
The word Indian is used because when Christopher Columbus landed on America he thought it to be India, so naturally he called it's inhabitants as indians. Since then the term is attached to them. Because of this many times the term Indian Americans is also used.