Friday, December 25, 2009

Wavell Plan and Reaction towards it


In 1943 Lord Wavell became the Viceroy. He believed that Britain cannot continue to rule India for long. So in order to retain India as a willing member of the British Commonwealth, he decided to hold a meeting in Shimla on 25 June 1945. Before that he put forward his plan:

  1. A new constitution would be formed only after major political parties had reached an agreement.
  2. Viceroy’s executive council will have equal number of caste Hindus and Muslims.
  3. Viceroy’s veto power was to continue.
  4. A British High Commissioner would live in India.
The plan was rejected as no agreement could be reached over the composition of the Viceroy’s Executive Council. Mr. jinnah wanted that only Muslim League could represent Muslim community. This was not accepted to the Congress. It asserted that it represented all communities and therefore out of five Muslim members two should be nominated by the Congress. Mr. Jinnah was not ready for this so the plan was rejected. 

Wednesday, November 11, 2009

Fraizi Movement

Haji Shariatullah

The first half of the 19th century witnessed a movement known as Fraizi Movement in East Bengal. The founder of this movement was Haji Shariatullah. The movement was a reaction to the British agrarian policy and the consequent dealing of the Zamindars. This movement concentrated on the depressed class of Muslims. They were asked to give up un-Islamic customs and practices and to act upon the commandments of the religion called Faraiz or duties. Hence his followers came to be known as Faraizis.

Tuesday, November 3, 2009

'Trojan Horse'

The Trojan Horse is the universally accepted symbol of treachery and deceit. Nowadays it has been replaced by money or Direct Foreign Investment. In the name of globalization, the developed nations of the world are establishing their hegemony over the third world countries, Economic Imperialism, as it can be explained in the simpler terms. The world level organizations, which were once formed to support the poor nations have simply become puppets in the hands of the Capitalist nations. These nations are behaving like vultures relishing the dead animals. With their military powers they force the weaker countries to open their markets and then flood them with money. Foreign money is like drug-addiction, once a person gets into the habit, and then it is very difficult to get rid of it. Best example if this type of Imperialism is that of India. With the force of power, India was forced to open up its markets, then intoxicating money was pumped into the veins of the Indian economy and was paralyzed. John Sullivan, who was the President of Board of Revenue, Madras had once rightly said, “Our (British) system acts very much like a sponge, drawing up all the good things from the banks of the Ganges and squeezing them down on the banks of the Thames.”

The world has witnessed three form of imperialism. The first was the merchant imperialism, then came the Free trade imperialism and the latest is the finance imperialism.The only way to check this is simply to develop a feeling of nationalism among the masses. They should not be carried away by the pomp and show. All that glitters is not gold. We should not be foolish like the Trojans. We must remember one thing – there are no free lunches in this world. Everything comes with a price tag, and if it is imposed, it will not only carry its price tag but also the blood stain of the indigenous craftsmen.

Tuesday, March 31, 2009

Rise of Indian Nationalism

Rise of Indian nationalism:

courtsey :

    Indians did not generally feel content about British rule in India. Indians lacked equal job opportunities.They were not allowed to advance to high positions in government service or to become officers in the army. In 1885, a number of Indian lawyers and professionals formed the Indian National Congress. Members of the organization belonged to various religions and came from all parts of India. Congress members debated political
and economic reforms, the future of India, and ways for Indians to achieve equal status with the British. 
    Some Muslims believed the Indian National Congress was a Hindu organization aiming for Hindu rule. In 1906, several Muslim leaders, encouraged by the British, formed the All-India Muslim League.
Members of the organization sought to give the Muslims a voice in political affairs. However, most Muslims continued to support the Indian National Congress. 
    In 1905, the British divided the state of Bengal into separate Hindu and Muslim sections. Indians protested this action with a boycott of British goods and a series of bombings and shootings. In an effort to stop the violence, the British introduced the Morley-Minto Reforms of 1909. These reforms enlarged the viceroy's executive council to include an Indian. They also allowed Indians to elect representatives to the provincial legislative councils. In 1911, the British reunited Bengal. 
    When World War I broke out in 1914, Britain declared that India was also at war with Germany. Indian troops fought in many parts of the world. In return for support, the British promised more reforms
and agreed to let Indians have a greater role in political affairs. Nevertheless, protests against the British continued. 
    In March 1919, the British passed the Rowlatt Acts to try to control protests in India. The acts attempted to restrict the political liberties and rights of Indians, including the right to trial by jury. But demonstrations against the government increased in response to the
acts. On April 13, 1919, thousands of Indians assembled in an enclosed area in Amritsar. Troops entered the meeting place and blocked the entrance. The British commander then ordered the soldiers to open fire on the unarmed crowd. The shots killed about 400 people and wounded about 1,200. This event, called the Amritsar Massacre, proved to be a turning point. From then on, Indians demanded complete independence from British rule. The British promised more reforms, but at the same time, they tried to crush the independence movement. 
    The Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms were passed in late 1919 and went into full effect in 1921. The reforms increased the powers of the provincial legislative councils, where Indians were most active. The central legislative council was replaced by a legislature with most of its members elected. However, the viceroy and the governors still had the right to veto any bill. The Indians did not believe the reforms gave them enough power. 
    By 1920, Mohandas K. Gandhi had become a leader in the Indian independence movement and in the Indian National Congress, which had become the most important Indian political organization. Gandhi
persuaded the Congress to adopt his program of nonviolent disobedience, also known as nonviolent nonco-operation. Gandhi's program asked Indians to boycott British goods, to refuse to pay taxes, and to stop using British schools, courts, and government services. As a result, some Indians gave up well-paying jobs that required them to cooperate with the British. Gandhi changed the Indian National Congress from a small party of educated men to a mass party with millions of followers.

Tuesday, March 24, 2009

First World War

This is the presentation prepared by me on the topic 'First World War' for the class 10.

Thursday, March 19, 2009

State Legislature

Here is the Powerpoint Presentation on the working of the state Legislature under the  Indian constitution. (click on the image below to download)